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Defending the Conquest

Product Details About the Author. He attended Napa Valley College and Solano Community College accumulating 70 units then the desire to write full-time struck.

Placing the pursuit of a higher education on the back burner, he wrote voraciously, knocking out screenplays, teleplays, treatments, news articles, and other works. He is a creator at heart, an information junky and someone who thoroughly enjoys fiction and how it can mirror reality.

Dodge is married, has two children, is considering getting a dog for the family, and currently lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. You can find Dodge in one of three places - rehabbing the family house room by room , supervising at the water quality control plant or taking advantage of slivers of writing time when all is quiet. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Red Castle Press. Indeed, these poems reveal the model of comicity that Cervantes utilizes in his masterpiece of humor, Don Quixote. It exemplifies his humor, the touchstone of all Cervantine literature, and at the same time confirms his substantial poetic gifts.

And Cervantes was an excellent burlesque sonneteer. The acceptations combine in burlesque poetry, whose purpose is to mock and ridicule someone or something, often itself. Burlesque can mock a literary style or movement or a specific work. It can also mock a person, a society, an institution, or even a nation. Burlesque is not specifically limited to literature, yet its richest expression is achieved through this medium.

Burlesque is a certain attitude toward life and toward the object of the burla. Rather than criticize and censure bitterly as satire does, burlesque is festive and comic in spirit and in style. While satire tends to portray life as tragically flawed and vice-ridden, burlesque depicts life as ridiculous and, therefore, worthy of being ridiculed.

This element of burla —of mockery and ridicule and of pulling a trick on someone or something—is essential to the aesthetic category of the burlesque. It must be allowed, however, that burlesque and satire cannot be rigidly separated and often overlap in practice. Indispensible to a proper appreciation of the burlesque is the realization that it has its own aesthetic standards and conventions. It does not seek harmonious, melodic language but one designed to ridicule and provoke laughter, to debase, and to shock our ears and even our sensibilities.

Its concerns are not the intricacies of the soul, of love, or of metaphysics, but the parodic inversion of such sublime themes. Paradoxically, through exaggeration, burlesque is a call to truth and antidogmatism. It bids us to cast aside the prevailing deadly serious world view so that we might see and enjoy ourselves in all our complexity: imperfect, illogical, and irrational, yet vital and irresistibly comical creatures.


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His style is characterized by what was called conceptismo. It consists of a vast, carefully organized collection of devotional songs in Galician-Portuguese songs , in praise of the Virgin Mary or narrating miracles attributed to her. Staves with musical notation, provided for hundreds of songs written in three books between approximately and , offer an enormous amount of information on musical practice, in a well-defined spatial and temporal context.

The repertoire of the Cantigas de Santa Maria is impressive not only on account of the sheer number—more melodies survive for them than for all the lyrics of the southern troubadours — but also because of their variety and vitality. Late and inadequate access to the sources, the language used, and the fact that this repertoire does not easily fit French theoretical models the current yardstick for 13th-century music , among other reasons, caused a certain estrangement.

II-III, The monumental presentation of the edition certainly led many to believe that most musicological issues had been satisfactorily confronted and resolved. Nowadays, however, many of these issues deserve a fresh look, amongst them being the examination and evaluation of the manuscript sources. This General History was the result of a long compilation process carried out between and , initiated shortly after the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards. It also contains pictographical images and ornaments which unite elements of precolonial writing with glyphs and European paintings.

It is considered the result of a complicated transculturation process. The General history went through several stages between and , and between Tlatelolco, Tepepulco, and Mexico City.

Defending the Conquest

Thus, in Fray Bernardino settled in the convent of Tepepulco, today Tepeapulco in the state of Hidalgo , where with informants of the indigenous nobility he produced, between and , his first handwritten works of the General History of the things of New Spain.

The following years, , will be the most bitter in the life of Sahagun. He himself, over seventy years old, can no longer write because of the trembling of his hands. And shortly after, the provincial Fray Alonso de Escalona disperses the writings of Fray Bernardino through the Franciscan convents of the Province of Mexico. Despite these obstacles, Sahagun managed, to continue his work. However, from the year , Philip II and with it the Council of the Indies, already dead Ovando, changed their position regarding the research on indigenous cultures: they were considered dangerous as they spread pagan ideas and encouraged rebel and independence spirit.

It then was taken to Spain by Fray Rodrigo de Sequera.

CRITICISM by E. A. Poe ()

The work was bound in four volumes but later rebound into three. The 2, magnificent illustrations, made by the students, are mostly in the left-hand column, where the text is shorter. The illustrations combine the syntactic and symbolic traits of the ancient Nahua tradition of painting-writing with the formal qualities of European Renaissance painting. Later, the manuscript could have been gifted to Cardinal Ferdinando de Medici by Philip II or just escaped confiscation and were transported to a safe haven in Rome, in the library of this Cardinal, collector of exotic plants, precious stones, and wondrous objects from America, including feather paintings such as are described in detail in the manuscript.

When Ferdinando renounced the red hat to succeed his late brother, Francesco I, as Grand Duke of Tuscany in , he took the manuscript with him to Florence. Although he generally kept the existence of the book secret, he allowed it to be consulted for the ceiling frescoes painted by Ludovico Buti in the armory in the Uffizi in Retained in the Medici guardarobba for most of the grand-ducal period, the book entered the Medicea Laurenziana Library in , and thenceforth has generally been known as the Codex Florentinus, Codice fiorentino , or Florentine Codex.

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Therefore, what is commonly referred to as the Florentine Codex is a manuscript that consists of 12 books devoted to different topics, firstly completed around , archived in the Medicea Laurenziana Library of Florence, Italy. It describes the principal deities in the Aztec pantheon, listing their distinctive physical features, attire, main functions, and the festivals dedicated to them. He was the god of war and of the sun, huge, immensely strong, and warlike, and to him was dedicated one of the two shrines of the Templo Mayor Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan.

The other shrine was dedicated to Tlaloc, the lord of rain, who lived on the highest mountains where clouds form and was associated with the agricultural world and the fertility of the land. Huitzilopochtli, Tlaloc, and two other major gods are depicted on folio 10r.

This book also describes ceremonies involving human sacrifice, which so shocked the Spaniards when they arrived in Mexico. Sacrifices were offered so that the cosmic cycle might continue and the sun rise every morning. The gods were embodied in the sacrificial victims—their ixiptla images or representatives—and received sustenance from human hearts and blood. The illustration at folio 84v depicts the sacrifice of the ixiptla of Tezcatlipoca, god of the night sky and of memory.

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He was then carefully dressed and adorned and, after various ceremonies, taken to the foot of the pyramid where he was killed. The sacrificial victims were generally soldiers captured in battle, but they also could be slaves, men found guilty of some crime, or young women or children offered to the deities of the rain and the waters.

In battle, the goal was not to kill the enemy, but to take prisoners, who were grabbed by the hair and destined to be sacrificed. Warfare for the purpose of securing sacrificial victims is depicted in the illustrations on folio 74r and folio 74v of this book. Aztec religion was permeated with stories about the birth, death, and return to life of the gods. This perennial process of regeneration was reflected in ceremonies involving human and other sacrifice and in the architecture of Tenochtitlan.

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The Templo Mayor Great Pyramid was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc and had separate shrines to each of these gods. This dual construction had great significance in Mesoamerican cosmology, symbolizing the two sacred mountains, Tonacatepetl the Hill of Sustenance , and Coatepec the Hill of the Snake. The shrine dedicated to Tlaloc, the god of rain, represented the mountain housing maize and other things that Quetzalcoatl stole from the gods to give to mankind.

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The shrine dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, the god of war and of the sun, represented the mountain on which the god was born, already an adult and dressed as a warrior, his mother Coatlicue having generated him after she placed a feather ball in her lap. On the mountain the god defeated his sister Coyolxauhqui, the moon goddess, and his brothers who were jealous of his birth. Once dead, they went to form the Milky Way. Among the noteworthy illustrations in Book III is the depiction, on folio v, in the appendix on education, of parents taking children to school.

The Mesoamericans used two calendars, one solar and the other ritual. The Xiuhpohualli solar calendar had a cycle of days divided into 18 months of 20 days each, plus five days considered inauspicious.

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The ritual calendar consisted of days and was formed by associating the numbers from 1 to 13 with 20 different signs. A table that was principally used by priests in divination is reproduced in striking detail on folios r and v. Among the other illustrations in Book IV is a gruesome depiction of anthropophagy, or ritual cannibalism, which often was practiced as part of the rite of human sacrifice. Prisoners were taken to the temple of Huitzilopochtli, killed, and their flesh consumed by the notables.

By means of this practice, the strength of the enemy was consumed and assumed by their captors, in a kind of communion with the dead person and with the gods. He believed that many of the conversions to Christianity claimed by Catholic priests in Mexico were superficial, and masked lingering adherence to pagan beliefs.



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